Earth (known as Erde-Tyrene by prehistoric humans and Forerunners) is the third planet of the Sol system, and one of its four terrestrial worlds. Homeworld of the human species, Earth has been at the forefront of galactic history, from encounters with the Precursors to the end of the Covenant Empire. Inhabited long ago by a prehistoric interstellar human government conquered and dissolved by the Forerunners, Earth is currently the capital world of the Unified Earth Government.
Earth was possibly the most populated planet of the human space territories. For a significant amount of humanity's history, it was their only known place in the universe to support life.
The Earth first formed about 4.6 billion years ago, and gave rise to the first single-celled organisms about 3.9 billion years ago. About 200,000 years ago, the ancestors of modern humans, Homo Sapiens, evolved in Africa. Indigenous to Eastern Africa, they gradually spread across the entire planet. Eventually, the humans, originally consisting of groups of hunter-gatherers, began to develop into civilizations.
Human civilizations gradually became more and more complex, and eventually, possibly through contact with the Forerunners, humanity discovered spaceflight and spread across the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. After being defeated in a war against the Forerunner civilization, the humans were exiled back to Earth, with their species devolved and splintered into multiple subspecies and their culture degrading back to a primitive state for millennia.
After the war with the Forerunners, Earth and humanity came under the charge of the The Librarian, a Forerunner Lifeshaper who helped the humans slowly work towards rebuilding a primitive civilization. Remnants of their former technology, such as steam power and hot-air balloon flight, were re-learned under her care but later forgotten after the firing of the Halo Array.
Near the end of their war with the Flood, the Forerunners built a machine to generate a slipspace portal to the Ark in Africa. They also indexed the human species as a part of their Conservation Measure to preserve life in the galaxy after the activation of the Halo Array. After the array's activation, human life was planted back on Earth, where it successfully re-developed.
Civilization and the Modern Age
After the recovery from the Array, humans reduced back to hunter-gatherers for nearly a hundred thousand years, until civilizations began to form anew.
By the year 1914, much of the world was divided into two factions, the Triple Entente, or Allies: the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and later the United States of America, and the Triple Alliance, or Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and other nations of similar ideals.
The Central Powers were defeated at the end of World War I in 1918, resulting in a decade of prosperity for the Allies, followed by an economic depression and the rise of Fascism, Nazism, and Communism in many countries. In 1939, another World War erupted, between the Allies (Britain, the Soviet Union, which were, again, later joined by the United States, and many other nations) and the Axis (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the Empire of Japan). In 1945, the Allies defeated the Axis. Later that year, the victorious nations, in an attempt to prevent more World Wars, founded the United Nations, an international assembly of peaceful nations, whose goal was to settle international disputes peacefully, and was the predecessor to the UNSC. In 1957, humanity finally made their way into space with unmanned probes and by 1961, humans themselves had gone into space. In 1969, humanity had finally stepped on an extraterrestrial surface-Earth's Moon.
After World War II, humanity would lack war on that scale, although smaller wars and conflicts erupted, including the Korean War, Vietnam War, Cold War, and the first and second Iraq War. In the early 21st century, terrorism became a particular thorn in the side for the nations on Earth and small wars broke out along with civil unrest in many countries. However, no full wars on the same scale as past World Wars erupted until two centuries later.
Interplanetary colonization and conflicts
By 2080, humanity's national governments, under the auspices of the United Nations, had begun to establish colonies on the other planets in the Sol system. However, expansion did not come without problems. In the mid-22nd century, two major dissident factions emerged; the neo-communist Koslovics and fascist Frieden, which began to battle one another and the United Nations.
In March–June 2160, Jovian Frieden secessionists attacked members of the United Nations on the moon Io, which led to three months of fighting between the Earth military and Jovian Frieden forces. National governments began to support their own colonies which sparked proxy wars off-planet, leading to tension and militarization on Earth. In 2162, armed conflict ripped through South America, starting the Rain Forest Wars, as Koslovic, Frieden, and UN forces all clashed over ideological differences, sparking additional conflicts off-planet. In December of 2163, the three factions clashed, this time on Mars. This was the first extraterrestrial use of Marines, who launched lightning raids on Koslovic positions, permanently affecting military doctrine for centuries. In 2164, UN forces began a massive military build-up and began the first true interplanetary war. The forces of the fledgling United Nations Space Command were significantly bolstered by a massive propaganda campaign running on the victories on Mars and over the next six years took back the Sol system and drove the dissident factions to destruction. Now with a massive military with no enemy to fight, overpopulation, famine, and a collapsing economy, the newly unified Earth faced an uncertain future.
It was not until 2291 that this problem was solved when researchers created the Shaw-Fujikawa Translight Engine which enabled superluminal travel by allowing access to an alternate domain known as Slipstream Space. In 2310, the UNSC unveiled their first line of colony ships and the best and brightest from both civilian walks of life and the military set out to form the Inner colonies. This eased the overpopulation problem upon Earth which became the capital of the Unified Earth Government, while the inner colony of Reach would later become the headquarters of the UNSC.
The Human-Covenant war
All this was suddenly and violently rendered a moot point when a single alien ship made an unprovoked attack on the colony of Harvest, humanity's first encounter with an alien civilization - the Covenant. Over the next twenty-seven years, humanity would wage a brutal war for survival, losing hundreds of colonies, including all of the Outer Colonies in 2536; and on 31 August 2552, the UNSC's largest military installation, the planet Reach, was destroyed by the Covenant. During the entire course of the conflict, the UNSC followed the Cole Protocol, which declared that no UNSC vessel targeted by the Covenant was to retreat to Earth, as a means of ensuring the secrecy and security of the planet's location. In nearly twenty-seven years of galactic warfare, the Covenant never succeeded in determining the location of Earth through the measures taken under the Cole Protocol. However, by September 2552, Earth was humanity's last major stronghold in its war against the Covenant.
Despite the effectiveness of this law, on 20 October 2552, the Covenant launched their first attack upon Earth, rendering the Cole Protocol moot and initiating the final confrontation between UNSC forces and the Covenant.
Pre-Battle of Earth
Prior to the Covenant invasion of Earth, there had been a suppressed influx of information by ONI, resulting in people going about their normal lives even up until the attack. Several fleets were brought to Earth. Some like the Fifth Fleet were merged with the Home Fleet in a special command grouping.Other fleets brought to Earth include the Second Fleet, Seventh Fleet, and the Sixteenth Fleet. The 6th Battle Group along with large amounts of Marines, Army Troopers, and ODSTs present, five SPARTAN-IIs were also brought to or were near Earth.
Following the victory at the Battle of Earth and the Battle of Installation 00, the Human-Covenant war ended in March 2553. Many of Earth's cities were left in ruins and the planet's population was sharply reduced as a result of the Covenant invasion. With the war's end and the departure of the Covenant separatists to their respective homeworlds, the UNSC began to rebuild the extensive damage inflicted upon Earth's infrastructure and human population. Following the end of the Human-Covenant war, Earth saw an influx of refugees from former Covenant species, who were walled off in "conclaves."
On July 25, 2557, Shadow-of-Sundered-Star moved into targeting range in the Mantle's Approach with the Composer and proceeds to compose the residents of New Phoenix. John-117 and with the help of Battlegroup Dakota, flew a Broadsword into the ship. There he confronted the Didact and used a Pulse grenade to send him through a slipspace portal to Installation 03. John then detonates a HAVOK Tactical Nuclear Weapon, destroying the Composer and the ship. This was then dubbed the New Phoenix Incident and the city was placed under quarantine until eight months later on 24 March 2558.
In 2557, only six months after the New Phoenix Incident, an unknown Sangheili refugee attempted to detonate a HAVOK Tactical Nuclear bomb in Rio de Janeiro, but was apprehended by Fireteam Majestic before he could do so.
At the beginning of The Reclamation, the Created knocked out power on Earth and occupied it.
The UNSC Supreme Headquarters is located on Earth and somewhere within the United Republic of North America and is most likely where Earth is governed. This is mostly likely because the United Nations existed in New York City for a long time. It is very possible that the UNSC Supreme Headquarters was falsely identified and it is actually supposed to be the UEG's headquarters or doesn't exist. Not much else is known about Earth's specific government.
Trade was one of the most important parts of the economy of Earth as most planets gathered resources to be sent back to Earth. This can be seen with Harvest, as they exported to Earth; mineral water, livestock and vegetables and fruit goods. As well, colonies like Reach exported out (presumably) metals like Titanium, to Earth. There are six orbital elevators on Earth that can allow for products to move off and on the planet.
Earth was one of the, if not the most heavily defended planets in the human space as it was the capital of the UEG. Sydney contained the HIGHCOM Facility Bravo-6, the UNSC's headquarters, which was nicknamed 'The Hive'.
There were over three hundred operational Orbital Defense Platforms. As well, there was the UNSC Home Fleet that would help defend Earth and any other Sol system colony. Large amounts of Marines, ODSTs, and Army Troopers were as well on Earth or in system.
In the Post-War Era, the Home Fleet had a new formation called Battlegroup Dakota that consisted of the UNSC Infinity plus several newer UNSC Starships.
Halo is a military science fiction first-person shooter video game franchise managed and developed by 343 Industries, a subsidiary of Xbox Game Studios. Halo was originally developed by Bungie Studios. The series centers on an interstellar war between humanity and an alliance of aliens known as the Covenant.
The games in the series are critically acclaimed, with the original considered the Xbox's "killer app".