3/19/2019 0 Comments
You may not know, but the beginning of chip development is a story of betrayal and controversy. Probably the main reason for this is the story of the eight traitors. This is the story of eight researchers who left the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in the middle of the last century and founded the Fairchild Semiconductor. The company is further involved in creating a bunch of companies. Some of the companies are Intel and AMD.
Julie Blanc, Victor Greenwich, John Horner, Eugene Clayner, Jay Last, Gordon Moore, Robert Neuss, and Sheldon Roberts are the eight researchers known as "Traitorous Eight". In 1956, William Shockley recruited a group of young PhDs for his company, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Although Shockley himself was a remarkable scientist and Nobel laureate, he made the treatment he had for the eight to leave the company and, together with Sherman Fairchild, to establish Fairchild Semiconductor. In just a few years, the company has become a center for development and innovation.
Establishment of the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory
William Shockley is an innovator who discovered the transistor in 1955 and founded a company that will produce transistors and shockwave diodes.
With the investment of Arnold Beckman, Shockley Semi-Conductor Laboratories was soon established. The company was part of Beckman Instruments. Shortly after the opening, they were recruited by Julius Blanc, Jay Last, Gordon Moore, Robert Neuss, and Sheldon Roberts, and a few months later Eugene Clayner, Victor Greenwich and John Horner. All were either young doctors or experienced researchers, between 26 and 33 years.
Problems, unfortunately, started almost immediately. Shockley, who was an old-age researcher, believed that every scientist must be able to carry out all technological processes himself. Because of this, he refused to hire additional technical staff.
The company has ceased to develop bipolar transistors, although, according to Mr. Neuss and Mr. Moore was a surprise. Although perhaps the explanation is that Beckman Instruments had a contract with the US military for research and development.
Sadly, although he was a brilliant scientist, Shockley was a bad manager and businessman, but also bad in contact with people. Because of communication problems, often instead of colleagues, he saw enemies. It was the relationship that made eight "traitors" leave the company and seek happiness elsewhere.
From the very beginning, the atmosphere in the laboratory was so tense that the Nobel Prize failed to calm down the relationship.
Resignations and a new company
Already next year, Clayner, Blank, Greenwich, Last, Roberts. Moore and Kearney started seeking Shockley's withdrawal. On May 29, 1957, as the final step, they submitted an ultimatum or Shockley goes or they are.
Instead of an official agreement, the group signed 10 banknotes of 1 dollar. Each banknote had all the signatures, and that was their mutual agreement. "The Eighth Traitors" and the two bankers Arthur Rock and Bad Coyle ceremoniously signed these banknotes, probably themselves not knowing the importance of the meeting.
Finding investors was not easy. Arthur Rock risked his own credibility and organized meetings with 30 companies before finding an interested investor. Magnavox, General Mills, and Burroughs are part of the companies that refused to even meet with scientists before refusing them. Finally, on September 19, the group ranked with the innovator and investor Sherman Fairchild.
For a week with a loan from Mr. Fairchild $ 1.38 million created their company. In September 1957, eight of them left Shockley and received the name "Eight Traitors". Developer Fairchild had the opportunity to buy shares that were distributed to scientists for a sum of $ 3 million and thus become the sole owner. In 1959, he did this, but with the move, researchers from partners became employed in the company and thus entangled the enthusiasm.
Fairchild Semiconductors from 1960 to 1965 was the market leader for semiconductors. In 1967, the company lost its first place on the Texas Instruments market.
Basics and today's model of the Silicon Valley
Since its founding, eight scientists have introduced a new culture of work in the company. Something that has become a basic way of working in the Silicon Valley: open communications, generous distribution of actions, horizontal organizational structure and autonomous research teams.
Ten years later, thanks to its brilliance and company culture, Fairchild Semiconductor had thousands of employees and $ 12 million in profits. The process behind the integrated circuits they created is still used today.
Unfortunately, the eight were together until 1961. In 1961, the Vice President of the Marketing Department accused Jay Last of misusing funds. Moore and Noise did not stop in his defense, and as a direct consequence of this quarrel, the company left Last, Herni, Clayner and Roberts.
But this is not the end of the eight traitors. In 1968, Blank, Grinch, Clayner, Last, Herny and Roberts invested in the company Moore and Noise, N-M Electronics. A year later Intelco's company bought the rights to the name and switched to Intel.
Intel, AMD, and National Semiconductor
However, the culture of working in Silicon Valley is not the only thing these innovators left. Founders of Intel, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Arthur Rock, and Andy Grove; AMD's founder Jerry Sander; Charlie Spark and Floyd Quamé from National Semiconductor were part of Career employees in Fairchild. Some of the founders of Fairchild and employees in the company founded over 65 companies.
Years later, Robert Noyce, Jerry Sanders, and Andy Grove were mentors to Steve Jobs.