Swedish scientists have discovered a previously unknown organ through which humans detect environmental hazards that may be responsible for certain types of pain. It is located under the upper part of the skin.
It is an organ consisting of cells located near the nerve that, as an octopus, enclose and enter the nerve cells to sustain them. Previously it was not known that they participate in the feeling of pain. The cell structure is located just below the surface of the skin.
The discovery was published in the journal Science. Scientists are surprised by the new discovery because they have long believed that the nerve endings of the epidermis are bare or wrapped. But the structure forms a single, entangled network of nearby nerve cells throughout the body, leading researchers to claim that it should be formally named an organ.
"Our research shows that pain sensitivity not only occurs in the skin nerves but also in this recently discovered pain sensitive organ," said study author Patrick Ernfors. "The new organ is a two-cell receptor made up of a nerve and a Schwann cell," he adds.
This finding may lead to the development of new painkillers.
Greenland is known for glaciers, but the island has been melting at unprecedented speeds and fires have been reported over the past month.
Scientists did not expect Greenland to melt at this pace for another 50 years. By the last week of July, melting has reached the level predicted by climate models for 2070 under the most pessimistic scenario, reported Science Alert.
Greenland's ice sheet lost 12.5 billion tonnes of ice on August 1, the most a day since researchers began measuring melting ice in 1950, the Washington Post reported.
Dramatic melting suggests that Greenland's ice cover is approaching a turnaround that could irreversibly lead to complete extinction.
If that happens, the catastrophic rise in sea level will devour coastal cities around the world.
Arctic ice melting season begins each year in June and ends in August, with the melting peak recorded in July.
However, the speed of melting ice in Greenland this year has surpassed the records.
From July 30 to August 3, melting has been recorded on 90 percent of the surface of Greenland with 55 billion tonnes of water discharged over five days.
Similarly, above-average melting has been registered in Switzerland, glaciers have lost 800 million tonnes of ice there during heat waves in June and July.
Alaska also saw record melting ice in July.
UFO enthusiasts have slapped Facebook after the company deleted the mass entry event in Forbidden Area 51, another reason to fuel the ever-popular conspiracy theory of concealing the existence of aliens on Earth. The explanation for deleting the event is that it violated community standards.
"Storm Area 51, They Can't Stop All of Us" was an event that drew more than two million people who reported attendance via Facebook. The purpose of the event was to bring as many people together as possible into the strictly forbidden area of the US Army to once and for all solve the mystery of flying saucers and aliens inside.
Entry to Area 51 was planned for September 20th, and few nearby hotels have already reported being filled for the period since the event gained enormous popularity. Local sheriff Carrie Lee says as many as 500 tourists can make chaos in the area creating traffic jams and parking problems because the closest township to District 51 has only 5,200 residents.
The Pentagon may also have played a role in Facebook's move after trying to discourage UFO enthusiasts with a statement that "US forces are ready to defend the country and its secrets."
The talk of the event has taken to Twitter following the hashtag # Area51 where many comments that the deletion is a trifle because everyone knows the date and place of the gathering.
Scientists have been able to capture images of huge sharks in the waters of Scotland with the help of Britain's first autonomous shark camera.
Owned by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI), the underwater robot has observed different behaviors of sharks collected in the waters of northwest Scotland. Scientists hope that these images will help preserve this kind of shark. Although little is known about the huge sharks prevalent in Scottish waters, environmental and animal protection activists want this area to be declared protected.
The REMUS Shark Cam captures high-resolution photos and high-quality video from different angles. It is a large shark Cetorhinus maximus, the world's second-largest whale shark, protected in several states.
"These giant fish are spectacular and it's an unforgettable experience to watch them gracefully feed on the surface of the water. This technology gives us a look at shark behavior, which is very exciting. The first recordings led us to reassess their behavior, and we concluded that these sharks seem to spend a lot more time swimming above the seabed than we thought, "said Susan Henderson, a researcher, and researcher at Maritime Policy.
The key issue facing modern society today is how humanity can best adapt to extreme climate change. Perhaps the answer to how it should or should not be done can be found in the past. For example, from the Mayan civilization.
In the scientific study "The Role of Nutrition in Resistance and Sensitivity to Climate Change among Early Mayan Agricultural Communities" published in the journal Current Anthropology, the authors Clare Ebert, Julie Hogarth, Jaime Ave, Brendan Caletton and Douglas Kenneth Explore Ability of the ancient Maya to withstand periods of severe climate change.
The authors found that the growing need for a high-class corn-based diet may have made it more difficult for residents to withstand drought. This, in turn, led to the collapse of this civilization.
"Population growth and environmental degradation caused by the intensification of agricultural production, coupled with socio-conditional nutrition preferences, have made the community less flexible and less resilient," says Claire Ebert.
The scientists came to this conclusion after analyzing the human remains of 50 graves found in an old Mayan community in Belize, as well as in neighboring settlements. Measurement of carbon activity indicates that the oldest bones from these tombs date from between 735 and 400 BC, and the youngest remains between 800 and 850 BC.
The Laboratory for Human Paleoecology and Geochemistry of Isotopes at Pennsylvania State University measured the values of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from the samples taken. This way the diet of individuals and how it has changed over time has been reconstructed. The scientists paid particular attention to corn.
The result has shown that the persistent insistence of high-class locals to increase corn production, as well as the advantage given to this drought-tolerant crop, are probably among the factors that led to the collapse of the social-political system.
If you like cats, but because of an allergy you can't be near, you'll soon be able to enjoy your favorite animal, thanks to the latest vaccine scientists have discovered.
People diagnosed with cat allergy are allergic to the Fel-d1 protein found in the fur of these animals. This protein attaches to the cat's dandruff and then spreads to the area in which the cat lives or resides.
When the protein Fel-d1 enters the body of a person who is allergic, there is increased secretion of histamine, which causes redness of the eyes, sneezing and difficulty breathing. This is especially dangerous for people who also have asthma or some other form of respiratory illness.
The vaccine called HypoCat is the solution for all people who have this problem. Scientists at the University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland have been working on the vaccine for more than ten years and point out that previous research and experiments have shown that it works.
The HypoCat vaccine is injected into cats, boosting their immune system and thereby helping to eliminate the Fel-d1 protein from their body, according to a report published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
The vaccine is not yet available for commercial use.
7/14/2019 0 Comments
This company joins SpaceX and several other companies that want to provide internet access from satellites in places where there is no access or is of poor quality.
Perhaps the question of what the orbit of the Earth will look like when all the registered companies will set up their satellites for providing internet access may already have to be asked. These systems operate with thousands of satellites, so they can freely be said to potentially pose a problem for the future, for an orbit that already has a problem with space-based waste.
Amazon filed a request to the US-based FCC to obtain a permit for the placement of 3,236 satellites in orbit on Earth, where they will be able to provide Internet access to every part of the planet, especially where it is not available or is of poor quality.
With this, Amazon joins several other companies, of which the most famous is SpaceX, which have already launched their first 60 satellites.
From Amazon, they say they will be able to officially offer their service when they set up about 500 satellites from the planned over 3,000.
SpaceX plans to set up many more satellites, that is, their system will comprise about 12,000 satellites.
Astronomers have already complained about the "crowd" that is being done in orbit, saying that it will not be possible to observe the sky from the surface of the Earth when all planned satellites are set.
However, the companies they set out point out that they are not so big and that when they are placed on the planned positions, they will not bother much.
In order to avoid the ability of satellites to remain as space-based waste, they will have a run-time, after which they will be "burned out" in the atmosphere before they break up or lose contact with them.
The NASA will soon send the Dragonfly drone to Titan's mission, Saturn's biggest moon. The goal is to explore multiple locations with possible living conditions.
NASA said Dragonfly will fly from location to location via Titan, a satellite whose conditions are similar to those on Earth four billion years ago. If the mission is successful, it could reveal how life on our planet originated.
The Dragonfly mission is part of NASA's New Frontiers program and aims to understand how this chemistry has given way to biology. Scientists have long considered the Titan satellite to be attractive for study. Many people think that he might be able to support the life of microorganisms.
Titanium is organically composed of complex molecules which at least can be part of extraterrestrial biology. Titan's landscape is dominated by sand dunes and waterways composed of hydrocarbon, liquid methane, and ethane. Its surface is made up of ice, frozen water like a hard rock. Under the crust, there is a liquid water reservoir that astrophysicists consider to have the same temperature as the shallow water in the Pacific Ocean.
After many years of announcements, it finally happened - Apple decided to "kill" the iTunes application. This music service has been active since 2001 and was initially considered revolutionary, but has lost its popularity in recent years and has begun to lose users.
In fact, Apple has decided to divide iTunes into several different applications. Hence, instead of iTunes, Apple users will have access to Apple Music, Apple Podcasts and Apple TV.
Apple's iTunes speculation has been in existence a few years ago, but Apple did not confirm it until WWDC event in San Jose yesterday, which, in addition to this news, announced several more news about the future operations of the company.
All users who want to log on to the new services will have to do so through a new entry in which the email and user data will be hidden and protected. For the Windows operating system, the iTunes application will remain unchanged.
"Privacy is a fundamental human right, and we intend to respect it," said the head of the software department at Apple, Craig Federighi.
In addition to the new applications, Apple announced that soon the new iOS 13 operating system will arrive, which will have different and improved features, as well as changes in the interface. One is Dark Mode, which is very different from that of Android and is optimized for the entire operating system. All iOS applications will have a dark background, at the option of the user.
The new Apple Watch and Mac Pro were announced at WWDC, which received much criticism of the lack of novelties and improvements. Although Mac Pro has quite powerful specifications, the starting price of as much as $ 5,999 makes it too expensive for the casual user on the market, but costs do not stop there. The price of 5,999 dollars refers only to the housing, and in the price, the display and the bottom pad are not calculated.
The combination of the increasingly serious consequences of climate change and the slow reaction of humans put humanity on a melancholic road leading into a chaotic world that can cause global social collapse, according to a new report by the independent think tank The Breakthrough - National Center for Climate Restoration based in Melbourne.
The report was presented by Chris Barry, a former chief of the Australian Defense Forces and a retired Admiral of the Australian Navy.
"The authors presented a cruel truth about the hopeless situation in which humanity and our planet are located. The report notes that there is a real opportunity for the human race to go into extermination, "says Barry.
One of the conclusions is that climate change is a medium-term threat to human civilization, and that world governments must step up their efforts to fight global warming. The harmful effects of global warming will be reflected in a reduced amount of food and water in some areas and will be a catalyst for socio-political instability and increased unrest and clashes in the world.
The authors of the report calculated that if current pollution is continued, by 2050 there will be an increased temperature of three degrees Celsius compared to the pre-industrial period.
The consequences would be the melting of ice surfaces, the widespread loss of eternal ice, drought, and the dying of life in parts of Amazon.
The destabilization of air currents will significantly affect the intensity and geographical distribution of Asian and African monsoons, and together with the additional slowdown of the Gulf Stream, the systems for sustaining life in Europe are also being questioned, the report says. North America would be exposed to catastrophic climatic extremes, including fires, heat waves, drought ... The summer monsoons in China would disappear, and the levels of large Asian rivers would be significantly lower due to the loss of more than a third of the Himalayan ice.
The loss of the Andes glaciers would be up to 70 percent, and precipitation in Mexico and Central America would be reduced by 50 percent.
Last week, SpaceX sent the Falcon 9 rocket with 60 satellites in space. The Dutch astronomer Marco Lagrange managed to record the satellites as orbiting the Earth, one day after the rocket sent satellites into orbit on Earth.
Elon Musk has confirmed that all 60 satellites are online and are fully operational and that the launch mission has gone smoothly. If his superfast internet project proves successful, SpaceX could beat competitors like Amazon and OneWeb, who are also trying to establish their own Internet configuration.
In the next few years, SpaceX plans to launch thousands of satellites. Thus cheap internet would be available in most of the world's population, where it is still unavailable. The whole project costs $ 10 billion.
In the deepest point of the Indian Ocean live fish from the Liparidae family are now seen for the first time.
British experts descended to a depth of about 7.1 meters in the Indian Ocean and saw rare creatures left without words. During the eight-hour mission, photographs of creatures that are presumed to be new and so far unseen have been made.
As a leading expert on marine ecology at the University of Newcastle, Dr. Alan Jamison needed two and a half hours to reach the bottom of the ocean in one of the world's most isolated points 100 nautical miles off the island of Bali. The expedition was led by the American Viktor Veskovo, and they traveled to the bottom in a submarine for two and passed more than 7,192 meters.
"We do not often see something so unusual that leaves us without words," said Jamison for Mirror.
For the first time, human beings have seen fish from the Liparodae family. Unfortunately, during the expedition, samples of artificial fibers and plastics were found, which means that human-induced pollution has reached the most isolated points on our planet.
NASA reported that the Hubble telescope made a spectacular spiral galaxy photography NGC 2903, part of the constellation Leo, 30 million light-years away from Earth.
About 75 percent of the galaxies in space are spiral. Milky Way has been reclassified into a spiral galaxy with a central part and spiral star-filled stars, as well as cosmic dust and gases.
The focus of NASA is currently focused on black holes, and spiral galaxies contain black holes that are once near the center. Hubble's research on spiral galaxies aims to uncover the connection between black holes and local galaxies.
Preparations for a huge asteroid called "The God of Chaos" have already begun, and according to NASA's calculations, it should pass near the Earth in ten years from now.
On April 13, 2029, people in the sky will be able to spot a small dot light passing over them, which will become brighter and faster with each passing moment. She will travel so fast that she will spend the entire length of the moon in just one minute and be bright as the stars in the sky.
It is an asteroid whose official name is Apophis, after the Egyptian god of chaos. The asteroid has a width of 340 meters and is one of the largest that ever passed near the Earth. NASA has already begun preparing for its arrival, which will be harmless as Apophis will pass to 30,000 kilometers from Earth.
The Apophis will pass far enough from Earth to cause damage to our planet, and close enough for NASA scientists to extract data from it. So far, NASA had a chance to observe smaller asteroids from a closer distance but never before had a larger asteroid been detected at this distance.
"The advent of Apophis in 2029 will be an incredible opportunity for science. We will observe the asteroid with optical telescopes and radars. Through the radars, we will be able to clearly see the surface of the asteroid, "said Marina Brozovic, a radar explorer and scientist at NASA.
The asteroid will be visible to the naked eye of the night sky above the Southern Hemisphere, passing through the east to the west coast of Australia. Then, Apophis will travel along the Earth, through the Indian Ocean to the United States. It will most likely come closer to Earth when it flies over the Atlantic Ocean, which will fly in just one hour.
The latest data from the space agency NASA confirm that the universe is spreading much faster than previously thought.
The Hubble Space Telescope has shown that the universe is about nine percent faster than astronomers have assumed, based on their calculations for the space movement that began shortly after the Great Explosion.
This mismatched growth has now reached a point that can not be ruled out as a coincidence. That's not what we expected, said Adam Rice, Nobel Prize winner and prominent professor of physics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins University.
The speed of expansion of the universe, known as the Hubble constant, is a central part of the physics and understanding of the universe. The new research confirms that detailed work is needed to explain the growth of the universe.
Rice points out that it is now clear that the speed of expansion was not in line with what they expected.
One is measuring how fast the universe is spreading today, and another is a prediction based on physics from previous measurements, Rice pointed out.
He did not explain why there is an accelerated expansion of the universe.