Swedish scientists have discovered a previously unknown organ through which humans detect environmental hazards that may be responsible for certain types of pain. It is located under the upper part of the skin.
It is an organ consisting of cells located near the nerve that, as an octopus, enclose and enter the nerve cells to sustain them. Previously it was not known that they participate in the feeling of pain. The cell structure is located just below the surface of the skin.
The discovery was published in the journal Science. Scientists are surprised by the new discovery because they have long believed that the nerve endings of the epidermis are bare or wrapped. But the structure forms a single, entangled network of nearby nerve cells throughout the body, leading researchers to claim that it should be formally named an organ.
"Our research shows that pain sensitivity not only occurs in the skin nerves but also in this recently discovered pain sensitive organ," said study author Patrick Ernfors. "The new organ is a two-cell receptor made up of a nerve and a Schwann cell," he adds.
This finding may lead to the development of new painkillers.
Greenland is known for glaciers, but the island has been melting at unprecedented speeds and fires have been reported over the past month.
Scientists did not expect Greenland to melt at this pace for another 50 years. By the last week of July, melting has reached the level predicted by climate models for 2070 under the most pessimistic scenario, reported Science Alert.
Greenland's ice sheet lost 12.5 billion tonnes of ice on August 1, the most a day since researchers began measuring melting ice in 1950, the Washington Post reported.
Dramatic melting suggests that Greenland's ice cover is approaching a turnaround that could irreversibly lead to complete extinction.
If that happens, the catastrophic rise in sea level will devour coastal cities around the world.
Arctic ice melting season begins each year in June and ends in August, with the melting peak recorded in July.
However, the speed of melting ice in Greenland this year has surpassed the records.
From July 30 to August 3, melting has been recorded on 90 percent of the surface of Greenland with 55 billion tonnes of water discharged over five days.
Similarly, above-average melting has been registered in Switzerland, glaciers have lost 800 million tonnes of ice there during heat waves in June and July.
Alaska also saw record melting ice in July.
UFO enthusiasts have slapped Facebook after the company deleted the mass entry event in Forbidden Area 51, another reason to fuel the ever-popular conspiracy theory of concealing the existence of aliens on Earth. The explanation for deleting the event is that it violated community standards.
"Storm Area 51, They Can't Stop All of Us" was an event that drew more than two million people who reported attendance via Facebook. The purpose of the event was to bring as many people together as possible into the strictly forbidden area of the US Army to once and for all solve the mystery of flying saucers and aliens inside.
Entry to Area 51 was planned for September 20th, and few nearby hotels have already reported being filled for the period since the event gained enormous popularity. Local sheriff Carrie Lee says as many as 500 tourists can make chaos in the area creating traffic jams and parking problems because the closest township to District 51 has only 5,200 residents.
The Pentagon may also have played a role in Facebook's move after trying to discourage UFO enthusiasts with a statement that "US forces are ready to defend the country and its secrets."
The talk of the event has taken to Twitter following the hashtag # Area51 where many comments that the deletion is a trifle because everyone knows the date and place of the gathering.
Scientists have been able to capture images of huge sharks in the waters of Scotland with the help of Britain's first autonomous shark camera.
Owned by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI), the underwater robot has observed different behaviors of sharks collected in the waters of northwest Scotland. Scientists hope that these images will help preserve this kind of shark. Although little is known about the huge sharks prevalent in Scottish waters, environmental and animal protection activists want this area to be declared protected.
The REMUS Shark Cam captures high-resolution photos and high-quality video from different angles. It is a large shark Cetorhinus maximus, the world's second-largest whale shark, protected in several states.
"These giant fish are spectacular and it's an unforgettable experience to watch them gracefully feed on the surface of the water. This technology gives us a look at shark behavior, which is very exciting. The first recordings led us to reassess their behavior, and we concluded that these sharks seem to spend a lot more time swimming above the seabed than we thought, "said Susan Henderson, a researcher, and researcher at Maritime Policy.
The key issue facing modern society today is how humanity can best adapt to extreme climate change. Perhaps the answer to how it should or should not be done can be found in the past. For example, from the Mayan civilization.
In the scientific study "The Role of Nutrition in Resistance and Sensitivity to Climate Change among Early Mayan Agricultural Communities" published in the journal Current Anthropology, the authors Clare Ebert, Julie Hogarth, Jaime Ave, Brendan Caletton and Douglas Kenneth Explore Ability of the ancient Maya to withstand periods of severe climate change.
The authors found that the growing need for a high-class corn-based diet may have made it more difficult for residents to withstand drought. This, in turn, led to the collapse of this civilization.
"Population growth and environmental degradation caused by the intensification of agricultural production, coupled with socio-conditional nutrition preferences, have made the community less flexible and less resilient," says Claire Ebert.
The scientists came to this conclusion after analyzing the human remains of 50 graves found in an old Mayan community in Belize, as well as in neighboring settlements. Measurement of carbon activity indicates that the oldest bones from these tombs date from between 735 and 400 BC, and the youngest remains between 800 and 850 BC.
The Laboratory for Human Paleoecology and Geochemistry of Isotopes at Pennsylvania State University measured the values of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from the samples taken. This way the diet of individuals and how it has changed over time has been reconstructed. The scientists paid particular attention to corn.
The result has shown that the persistent insistence of high-class locals to increase corn production, as well as the advantage given to this drought-tolerant crop, are probably among the factors that led to the collapse of the social-political system.
If you like cats, but because of an allergy you can't be near, you'll soon be able to enjoy your favorite animal, thanks to the latest vaccine scientists have discovered.
People diagnosed with cat allergy are allergic to the Fel-d1 protein found in the fur of these animals. This protein attaches to the cat's dandruff and then spreads to the area in which the cat lives or resides.
When the protein Fel-d1 enters the body of a person who is allergic, there is increased secretion of histamine, which causes redness of the eyes, sneezing and difficulty breathing. This is especially dangerous for people who also have asthma or some other form of respiratory illness.
The vaccine called HypoCat is the solution for all people who have this problem. Scientists at the University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland have been working on the vaccine for more than ten years and point out that previous research and experiments have shown that it works.
The HypoCat vaccine is injected into cats, boosting their immune system and thereby helping to eliminate the Fel-d1 protein from their body, according to a report published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
The vaccine is not yet available for commercial use.